The Millî Küme (National League), introduced by the TFF in 1937, was the first national league in Turkish football and included the top ranked clubs of the three major regional leagues: İstanbul, Ankara, and İzmir, which at the time were far stronger than the other Turkish regional leagues. The four top ranked clubs of İstanbul, and the top two of both the Ankara and İzmir leagues made up the league roster. An exception was made in 1941, when 1940 Turkish Football Championship winners Eskişehir Demirspor (the only club from outside the three major cities to participate in the league) and a third club from Ankara were added. The league competition ended in 1950.
In the period from 1940 to 1950, both top-level championships existed at the same time, which resulted in there being two national champions in those years (though not every year). Since the Millî Küme was played in a league format, with home and away matches on a regular basis and a higher number of matches overall compared to the Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası, it was far more popular and competitive than the latter and overshadowed it. From 1944 to 1950, there was a special super cup contested between the champions of both national competitions, called Başbakanlık Kupası (Prime Minister's Cup). It was one of the earliest football super cup tournaments in the world and in Europe.
There was no top-level national championship in Turkey between 1952 and 1955. Galatasaray represented Turkey in the 1956/57 European Cup as champions of the İstanbul League. During that season, UEFA decided that only national champions could participate in the European Cup, which prompted the TFF to launch a national championship. Thus the Federasyon Kupası (Federation Cup) was established in 1956, in order to bring forth a national champion which would represent Turkey in the European Cup. Beşiktaş won both editions in 1956/57 and 1957/58. However, since the TFF failed to register their name for the draw in time, Beşiktaş could not participate in the 1957/58 season of the European Cup after all.
In 1959 the professional nationwide league, known as Süper Lig (Super League) today, was introduced by the TFF.
Final Tables and more detailed info on Turkish football before 1959.
Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası (Turkish Football Championship) 1924-1951 Champions Runners-up 1924 Harbiye Bahriye [*] 1925-26 not held 1927 Muhafızgücü Altınordu 1928-31 not held 1932 İstanbulspor Altınordu 1933 Fenerbahçe İzmirspor 1934 Beşiktaş Altay 1935 Fenerbahçe Altınordu 1936-39 not held due to the introduction of the Millî Küme 1940 Eskişehir Demirspor Fenerbahçe 1941 Gençlerbirliği Beşiktaş 1942 Harp Okulu Göztepe 1943 not held 1944 Fenerbahçe Harp Okulu 1945 Harp Okulu İzmit Harp Filosu 1946 Gençlerbirliği Beşiktaş 1947 Ankara Demirspor Fenerbahçe 1948 not held 1949 Ankaragücü Galatasaray 1950 Göztepe Gençlerbirliği 1951 Beşiktaş Altay [*] Harbiye, who represented the Turkish Military Academy, were initially based in İstanbul, but moved to Ankara in 1936 and eventually changed their name to Harp Okulu (champions in 1942 and 1945); they entered the first (1924) edition as a military club, having been included by the TFF alongside Bahriye (representing the Turkish Naval Academy), and not as champions of a civilian regional league. Millî Küme (National League) 1937-1950 Champions Runners-up 1937 Fenerbahçe Galatasaray 1938 Güneş Beşiktaş 1939 Galatasaray Ankara Demirspor 1940 Fenerbahçe Galatasaray 1941 Beşiktaş Galatasaray 1942 not held 1943 Fenerbahçe Galatasaray 1944 Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe 1945 Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş 1946 Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş 1947 Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe 1948 not held 1949 not held 1950 Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Federasyon Kupası (Federation Cup) 1956-1958 Champions 1956/57 Beşiktaş 1957/58 Beşiktaş Süper Lig (professional nationwide league) since 1959 Champions 1959 Fenerbahçe 1959/60 Beşiktaş 1960/61 Fenerbahçe 1961/62 Galatasaray 1962/63 Galatasaray 1963/64 Fenerbahçe 1964/65 Fenerbahçe 1965/66 Beşiktaş 1966/67 Beşiktaş 1967/68 Fenerbahçe 1968/69 Galatasaray 1969/70 Fenerbahçe 1970/71 Galatasaray 1971/72 Galatasaray 1972/73 Galatasaray 1973/74 Fenerbahçe 1974/75 Fenerbahçe 1975/76 Trabzonspor 1976/77 Trabzonspor 1977/78 Fenerbahçe 1978/79 Trabzonspor 1979/80 Trabzonspor 1980/81 Trabzonspor 1981/82 Beşiktaş 1982/83 Fenerbahçe 1983/84 Trabzonspor 1984/85 Fenerbahçe 1985/86 Beşiktaş 1986/87 Galatasaray 1987/88 Galatasaray 1988/89 Fenerbahçe 1989/90 Beşiktaş 1990/91 Beşiktaş 1991/92 Beşiktaş 1992/93 Galatasaray 1993/94 Galatasaray 1994/95 Beşiktaş 1995/96 Fenerbahçe 1996/97 Galatasaray 1997/98 Galatasaray 1998/99 Galatasaray 1999/00 Galatasaray 2000/01 Fenerbahçe 2001/02 Galatasaray 2002/03 Beşiktaş 2003/04 Fenerbahçe 2004/05 Fenerbahçe 2005/06 Galatasaray 2006/07 Fenerbahçe 2007/08 Galatasaray 2008/09 Beşiktaş 2009/10 Bursaspor 2010/11 Fenerbahçe 2011/12 Galatasaray 2012/13 Galatasaray 2013/14 Fenerbahçe 2014/15 Galatasaray 2015/16 Beşiktaş 2016/17 Beşiktaş 2017/18 Galatasaray 2018/19 Galatasaray 2019/20 Başakşehir 2020/21 Beşiktaş 2021/22 Trabzonspor 2022/23 NB: The Turkish Football Federation (TFF) currently does not count the championship titles from 1924 to 1951 (won in the Millî Küme and Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası), even though the championships in those years were officially organised by the TFF itself. Number of titles (93; number  of Süper Lig championships since 1959 in square brackets) 28  Fenerbahçe (İstanbul) 23  Galatasaray (İstanbul) 21  Beşiktaş (İstanbul) 7 [ 7] Trabzonspor 3 Harp Okulu (Ankara) [includes Harbiye] 2 Gençlerbirliği (Ankara) 1 Ankara Demirspor 1 [ 1] Başakşehir (İstanbul) 1 [ 1] Bursaspor 1 Eskişehir Demirspor 1 Göztepe (İzmir) 1 Güneş (İstanbul) 1 İstanbulspor 1 MKE Ankaragücü 1 Muhafızgücü (Ankara)
Thanks to Tamás Kárpáti, Cengiz Gürsel and Erdinç Sivritepe for earlier version of this file
Prepared and maintained by Baki Demirkıran for the Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation
Author: Baki Demirkıran
Last updated: 25 Sep 2022
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